Archive for Agustus 2013

Selasa, 27 Agustus 2013

BENUA EROPA

1. Letak dan Luas Wilayah

Secara astronomis Benua Eropa terletak antara 36°LU-71°LU dan 9°BB-66°BT. Luas daratan Eropa sekitar seperempat belas luas daratan di bumi dan menduduki peringkat ke-2 terkecil setelah daratan Australia. Benua Eropa membujur dari barat ke timur sejauh 5.300 km dan melintang 3.950 km. Luasnya adalah 10.900.000 km².

Wilayah Benua Eropa

2. Batas Wilayah 
Batas Kontinen sebelah timur ditetapkan di daratan mengikuti jalur puncak Peg. Ural dan Kaukasus terus ke Laut Kaspia.
Batas-batas benua Eropa adalah sebagai berikut.
a. Sebelah utara berbatasan dengan Kutub Utara (Arktik)
b. Sebelah selatan berbatasan dengan Benua Afrika dan Laut Tengah
c. Sebelah timur berbatasan dengan Selat Bosporus dan Laut HItam
d. Sebelah barat berbatasan dengan Samudera Atlantik

3. Bentang Alam 
a. Perisai Baltik
Kawasan ini terdiri atas empat perisai batuan tua, diantaranya sebagai berikut.
1) Perisai Fenoskandia meliputu wilayah Norwegia, Swedia, dan Finlandia. Wilayah ini disebut negeri seribu danau
2) Pegunungan Skotlandia
3) Perbukitan Irandia barat laut
4) Pulau Eslandia

b. Dataran Raya Eropa
Kawasan ini meliputi Perancis, Belgia, Belanda, Jerman bagian utara, Denmark, dan sebagian besar Polandia. Pada permukaan daratan ini muncul pegunungan kecil dan pegunungan sisa (monadnock) yang kaya akan deposit batu bara.

c. Dataran Tinggi Tengah
Dataran Tinggi Tengah merupakan plato atau dataran tinggi yang terpotong-potong oleh dataran raya eropa. Tanahnya kurang baik untuk pertanian karena permukaan tanah yang tipis dengan kemiringan yang curam.

d. Pegunungan Lipatan Muda Alpin
Kawasan ini meliputi Pegunungan Alpin dan kelompok Pegunungan Mediteran. Pada Pegunungan Mediteran terdapat 3 semenanjung besar, yaitu semenanjung Pyrenia, Italia, dan Balkan. Puncak-puncaknya adalah Mount Blanck (4.807 m), Gunung Monte Rosa (4.634 m), Gunung Pico de Aneto (3.404 m), Gunung Mulchasen (3.478 m), dan Gunung Corno Grande (2.914 m). Pada Kawasan ini, pertanian kurang baik untuk diusahakan karena ketinggian tempat, lapisan tanah yang tipis, dan lereng yang curam.

e. Dataran Rusia
Permukaan dataran rusia ditutupi oleh lapisan tanah loss yang baik untuk tanaman gandum. Sungai-Sungai di dataran Eropa bermuara ke laut dan teluk, seperti Sungai Rhein dan Sungai Elbe ke Laut Utara, Sungai Wisla dan Sungai Oder ke Laut Baltik, Sungai Rhone ke Laut Tengah, dan Sungai Donau ke Laut Hitam.

Vegetasi Dataran Eropa dipengaruhi oleh keadaan tanah, keadaan air, iklim, dan topografi. Daerah paling utara ditutupi oleh tundra, sedangkan di bagian selatan ditumbuhi oleh semak berkayu keras (semak mediterania). Kawasan Eropa Timur dan tenggara merupakan daerah padang rumput. Pada kawasan beriklim laut dan peralihan ditumbuhi oleh hutan campuran dan hutan berdaun jarum.

4. Iklim
a. Iklim Laut
Tipe Iklim ini meliputi wilayah negara Eropa bagian barat laut, seperti Inggris, Skandinavia bagian barat, Perancis, Belgia, Belanda, Denmark, dan bagian utara Spanyol. Daerah ini memiliki musim dingin yang sejuk serta musim panas yang nyaman dan hangat dengan curah hujan yang cukup banyak.

b. Iklim Peralihan
Iklim tipe ini terdapat di Eropa Tengah dicirikan dengan musim dingin yang terasa lebih dingin dan musim panas yang masih hangat. Perbedaan suhu tahunan makin ke timur semakin tinggi karena semakin jauh dari pengaruh laut.

c. Iklim Kontinental (Daratan)
Iklim tipe ini terdapat di Eropa Timur bercirikan musim dingin yang lebih panjang dan berada di bawah titik beku. Hujan terjadi pada musim panas dalam jumlah kecil (kurang dari 25 inci).

d. Iklim Dingin dan Arktik (Kutub)
Daerah in dicirikan oleh musim dingin yang penjang dan temperatur berada di bawah titik beku. Musim panas yang pendek (3 bulan) dengan curah hujan kurang dari 5.000 mm. Kawasan iklim in meliputi Swedia bagian utara, Finlandia, Norwegia, dan Rusia.

e. Iklim Mediteran
Tipe iklim ini dicirikan oleh musim dingin yan basah dan musim panas yang kering, meliputi daerah Eropa bagian Selatan.

5. Keadaan Penduduk
Pada pertengahan tahun 2001 Benua Eropa berpenduduk 727.000.000 jiwa (sekitar 7%) dari jumlah penduduk dunia. Persebaran penduduknya tidak merata. Daerah yang padat penduduknya adalah Italia, wilayah pantai selatan, Jerman, Belanda, Belgia, Perancis, dan Inggris.

Dilihat dari pendapatan perkapitanya (PCI) yaitu sebesar US$ 10.025 Eropa termasuk kelompok negara maju. Rata-rata pendapatan per kapita dunianya adalah US$ 2.754. Angka harapan hidup mencapai 72 tahun dengan pertumbuhan penduduk sebesar 0,4%.

Berdasarkan ciri fisiknya, penduduk Benua Eropa dapat dibedakan atas beberapa kelompok.
a. Orang Nordik yang berambut pirang, seperti orang Norwegia, Swedia, dan Jerman.
b. Orang Alpen yang berambut lebih gelap dan tebal, diantaranya orang Perancis dan Swiss.
c. Orang Dinara yang berambut gelap, seperti oarang Rumania.
d. Orang Mediterania yang bertubuh pendek dan berkulit kekuning-kuningan, diantaranya orang Spanyol, Portugis, dan Italia.
e. Bangsa Slavia mencakup orang Rusia, Polandia, Ceko, Slovakia, Bulgaria, dan Yugoslvia.

Penduduk Benua Eropa memiliki lebih dari enam puluh bahasa dan ratusan dialek. Para ahli bahasa membedakannya dalam 3 rumpun bahasa.
a. Bahasa Indo Jerman dipergunakan oleh bangsa-bangsa di sekitar Laut Baltik, seperti orang Norwegia, eslandia, Swedia, Denmark, Inggris, Jerman, dan Belanda.
b. Bahasa Baltik Slavia meliputi bahasa Bulgaria, Ceko, Slovakia, Polandia, dan Rusia yang banyak digunakan di Eropa Timur.
c. Bahasa Romana meliputi bahasa Perancis, Italia, Spanyol, Portugis, dan Rumania yang digunakan penduduk di kawasan Eropa Barat.

Perkembangan bangsa-bangsa Eropa erat hubungannya dengan perkeembangan agama Kristen. Sekitar 50% umat Kristen yang menganut Katolik Roma tersebar di Eropa Barat, Tengah, dan selatan. Pemeluk agama Protestan tersebar di Skandinavia, Finlandia, Jerman, dan Belanda.

Umat beragama Ortodok Timur tersebar di bagian timur dan tenggara. apenganut agama lainnya 40 juta orang umat Islam, 4 juta orang umat Yahudi, dan umat agama lainnya.

Benua Eropa

Posted by Jerry Kazama
Selasa, 20 Agustus 2013

Pengertian Topologi Jaringan

Topologi jaringan adalah sebuah pola interkoneksi dari beberapa terminal komputer. Topologi jaringan merupakan representasi geometri dari hubungan antar perangkat (terminal komputer, repeaters, bridges) satu dengan lainnya (Green, 1985:22).

Topologi jaringan sendiri terbagi menjadi dua yaitu:

  1. Physical. Merupakan gambaran fisik dari hubungan antara perangkat (komputer, server, hub, switch, dan kabel jaringan) yang membentuk suatu pola khusus 
  2. Logical. Merupakan gambaran bagaimana suatu perangkat dapatberkomunikasi dengan perangkat lainnya.

Topologi Bus

Topologi bus merupakan topologi dimana semua perangakat keras terhubung melalui kabel tunggal yang kedua ujungnya tidak tertutup dan masing-masing ujungnya menggunakan sebuah perangkat terminator. Jika alamat perangkat sesuai dengan alamat pada informasi yang dikirim, maka informasi akan diterima dan diproses. Jika tidak, maka informasi akan diabaikan.

Topologi Bus
Topologi Bus

Keuntungan topologi bus adalah :

  1. Jarak LAN tidak terbatas
  2. Kecepatan pengiriman tinggi.
  3. Tidak diperlukan pengendali pusat.
  4. Jumlah perangkat yang terhubung dapat dirubah tanpa mengganggu yang lain.
  5. Kemampuan pengembangan tinggi.
  6. Keterandalan jaringan tinggi.
  7. Kondusif untuk jaringan gedung bertingkat.

Kerugian topologi bus adalah :

  1. Jika tingkat traffic tinggi dapat menyebabkan kemacetan.
  2. Diperlukan repeater untuk memperkuat sinyal.
  3. Operasional jaringan LAN tergantung tiap perangkat.

Topologi Ring

Topologi ring merupakan topologi dimana setiap perangkat dihubungkan sehingga berbentuk lingkaran. Setiap informasi yang diperoleh akan diperiksa alamatnya oleh perangkat jika sesuai maka informasi akan diproses sedangkan jika tidak maka informasi diabaikan.

Topologi Ring
Topologi Ring

Keuntungan topologi ring adalah:

  1. Kecepatan pengiriman tinggi.
  2. Dapat melayani traffic yang padat.
  3. Tidak diperlukan host, relatif murah.
  4. Dapat melayani berbagai mesin pengirim.
  5. Komunikasi antar terminal mudah.
  6. Waktu yang diperlukan untuk pengaksesan data optimal.

Kerugian topologi ring adalah:

  1. Perubahan jumlah perangkat sulit.
  2. Kerusakan pada media pengirim dapat mempengaruhi seluruh jaringan.
  3. Harus memiliki kemampuan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan untuk kemudian di isolasi.
  4. Kerusakan salah satu perangkat menyebabkan kelumpuhan jaringan.
  5. Tidak baik untuk pengiriman suara, video dan data.

Topologi Tree

Topologi tree merupakan generalisasi dari topologi bus, media transmisi berupa kabel yang bercabang tanpa loop tertutup.Topologi tree selalu dimulai pada titik yang disebut headend. Satu atau beberapa kabel berasal dari headend.

Topologi Tree
Topologi Tree

Keuntungan topologi tree adalah :

  1. Kontrol manajemen mudah karena bersifat terpusat.
  2. Mudah untuk dikembangkan.

Kerugian topologi tree adalah :

  1. Karena data yang dikirim diterima oleh semua perangkat diperlukan mekanisme untuk mengidentifikasi perangkat yang ingin di tuju.
  2. Diperlukan mekanisme transmisi data untuk menghindari overlapping sinyal jika 2 perangkat mengirim data secara bersamaan. 

Topologi Star

Pada topologi star terdapat perangkat pengendali yang berfungsi sebagai pengatur dan pengendali komunikasi data. Sedangkan perangkat lain terhubung dengan perangkat pengendali sehingga pengiriman data akan melalui perangkat pengendali.

Topologi Star
Topologi Star

Keuntungan topologi star adalah:

  1. Dapat diandalkan
  2. Mudah dikembangkan
  3. Keamanan data tinggi
  4. Kemudahan akses ke jaringan LAN lain

Kerugian topologi star adalah:

  1. Jika trafik padat maka dapat menyebabkan lambatnya jaringan
  2. Jaringan sangat bergantung pada perangkat pengendali.

Topologi Mesh

Jenis topologi yang merupakan dari berbagai jenis topologi yang lain(disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan). Biasanya digunakan pada jaringan yang tidak memiliki terlalu banyak node di dalamnya. Dikarenakan setiap perangkat dihubungkan dengan perangkat lainnya.

Topologi Mesh
Topologi Mesh

Keuntungan topologi mesh adalah:

  1. Memiliki respon waktu cepat.
  2. Tidak memerlukan protocol tambahan karena tidak ada fungsi switching.

Kerugian topologi mesh adalah:

  1. Biaya cukup mahal.
Macam Macan dari sumber lain :

Macam-Macam Topologi Jaringan Komputer

Kalau kita berbicara soal topologi jaringan komputer mungkin kita tidak asing lagi mendengar nya, tapi pernahkah kita bertanya apa itu Topologi? pada dasarnya Topologi adalah sebuah peta dari sebuah jaringan konputer. Kalau menurut yang saya pelajari disekolah saya topologi jaringan komputer terbagi atas 2 jenis yaitu: Topologi secara fisik Physical Topology dan yang satu lagi Topologi secara logika  Logical topology. Kalau topologi secara fisik menjelaskan bagaimana susuna dari kabel dan komputer dan lokasi semua komponen jaringan , sedangkan kalau topologi secara logika bisa diartikan bagaimana imformasi atau aliran data dalam jaringan.
Dan berikut Macam-macam Topologi Jaringa Komputer yang akan saya jelaskan pada artikel ini, yaitu:
a. Topologi BUS
b. Topologi Star
c. Topologi Ring
d. Topologi Mesh
e. dan Topologi Tree
1.Topologi BUS
Topologi bus seringkali digunakan ketika jaringannya berukuran kecil, simpel, atau bersifat sementara. Sangat sederhana dalam instalasi, dan ekonomis dalam hal biaya. dan berikut keuntungan dan kerugian yang terdapat pada topologi BUS
Keuntungn
a.Bus adalah topologi yang sederhana, dapat diandalkan untuk penggunaan pada jaringan yang kecil, mudah untuk digunakan, dan mudah untuk dimengerti.
b.Bus hanya membutuhkan kabel dalam jumlah yang sedikit
c.Cukup mudah apabila kita ingin memperluas jaringan pada topologi bus
Kerugian
a.Sangat sulit untuk melakukan troubleshoot pada bus
b.Traffic (lalu lintas) yang padat akan sangat memperlambat Topologi BUS
c. Sangat lambat dibandingkan dengan topologi yang lain.
2. Topologi Star
Kalau Topologi yang satu ini semua kabel yang dihubungkan dari komputer-komputer kelokasi pusat dimana semuanya terhubung ke suatu alat yang dinamakan HUB. berikut keuntungan dan kerugian nya:
Keuntugan
a.Setiap node berkomunikasi langsung dengan konsentrator (HUB)
b.Bila setiap paket data yang masuk ke consentrator (HUB) kemudian di broadcast keseluruh node yang terhubung sangat banyak (misalnya memakai hub 32 port), maka kinerja jaringan akan semakin turun.
c.Sangat mudah dikembangkan
Kerugian
a. Boros kabel
b. Perlu penanganan khusus
c. Jika Hub Rusak maka jaringan yang berada dalam satu hub akan rusak.
3. Topologi Ring
Topologi Ring adalah setiap komputer yang terhubung ke komputer selanjutnya dengan komputer terakhir terhubung kekomputer yang pertama. Tapi sayangnya jika akan dilakukan penambahan atau pengurangan komputer dalam jaringan tentu saja akan mengganggu keseluruhan jaringan.
Keuntungan
a.Tidak ada komputer yang memonopoli jaringan, karena setiap komputer mempunyai hak akses yang sama terhadap token.
b.Data mengalir dalam satu arah sehingga terjadinya collision dapat dihindarkan.
Kerugian
a.Apabila ada satu komputer dalam ring yang gagal berfungsi, maka akan mempengaruhi keseluruhan jaringan.
b.Sulit untuk mengatasi kerusakan di jaringan yang menggunakan topologi ring.
c.Menambah atau mengurangi komputer akan mengacaukan jaringan.
d.Sulit untuk melakukan konfigurasi ulang.
4. Topologi Mesh
Kalau Topologi yang satu ini memiliki hubungan yang berlebihan antara dari peralatan-peralatan yang ada. jadi kesimpukan susunannya, setiap peralatan yang ada didalam jaringan saling terhubung satu sama lainnya. Keuntungan dan Kerugian nya adalah.
Keuntungan
a.Relatif lebih mudah untuk dilakukan troubleshoot.
b.Keuntungan utama dari penggunaan topologi mesh adalah fault tolerance.
c. Terjaminnya kapasitas channel komunikasi, karena memiliki hubungan yang berlebih.
Kerugian
a.Sulitnya pada saat melakukan instalasi dan melakukan konfigurasi ulang saat jumlah komputer dan peralatan-peralatan yang terhubung semakin meningkat jumlahnya.
b.Biaya yang besar untuk memelihara hubungan yang berlebih.
5. Topologi  Tree
Topologi Jaringan Pohon (Tree) Topologi jaringan ini disebut juga sebagai topologi jaringan bertingkat. Topologi ini biasanya digunakan untuk interkoneksi antar sentral denganhirarki yang berbeda.Untuk hirarki yang lebih rendah digambarkan pada lokasi yang rendah dan semakin keatas mempunyai hirarki semakin tinggi. Topologi jaringan jenis ini cocok digunakan pada sistem jaringan komputer.

Topologi Jaringan

Posted by Jerry Kazama


Seven deadly sins
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The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, is a classification of vices (part of Christian ethics) that has been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct Christians concerning fallen humanity's tendency to sin. In the currently recognized version, the sins are usually given as wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony.
The Catholic Church divides sin into two categories: venial sins, in which guilt is relatively minor, and the more severe mortal sins. Theologically, a mortal or deadly sin is believed to destroy the life of grace and charity within a person and thus creates the threat of eternal damnation. "Mortal sin, by attacking the vital principle within us – that is, charity – necessitates a new initiative of God's mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished [for Catholics] within the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation."[1]
According to Catholic moral thought, the seven deadly sins are not discrete from other sins, but are instead the origin ("capital" comes from the Latin caput, head) of the others. "Deadly sins" can be either venial or mortal, depending on the situation, but "are called 'capital' because they engender other sins, other vices".[2]
Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among European artists of the time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of Catholic culture and Catholic consciousness in general throughout the world. One means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic "SALIGIA" based on the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: superbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, acedia.[3]
Contents
Lust = Hawa Nafsu (Seksual)
Gluttony = Nafsu makan yang berlebihan
Sloth = Kemalasan
Envy = Iri Hati
Wrath = Kemarahan
Greed = Rakus (umum)
Pride = Sombong
Biblical lists
In the Book of Proverbs 6:16-19, among the verses traditionally associated with King Solomon, it states that the Lord specifically regards "six things the Lord hateth, and seven that are an abomination unto Him", namely:[4]
A proud look
A lying tongue
Hands that shed innocent blood
A heart that devises wicked plots
Feet that are swift to run into mischief
A deceitful witness that uttereth lies
Him that soweth discord among brethren
Another list, given this time by the Epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 5:19-21), includes more of the traditional seven sins, although the list is substantially longer: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, "and such like".[5] Since Saint Paul goes on to say that the persons who practice these sins "shall not inherit the Kingdom of God", they are usually listed as (possible) mortal sins rather than capital vices.
History
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An allegorical image depicting the human heart subject to the seven deadly sins, each represented by an animal (clockwise: toad = avarice; snake = envy; lion = wrath; snail = sloth; pig = gluttony; goat = lust; peacock = pride).
The modern concept of the seven deadly sins is linked to the works of the 4th century monk Evagrius Ponticus, who listed eight evil thoughts in Greek as follows:[6]
Γαστριμαργία (gastrimargia) gluttony
Πορνεία (porneia) prostitution, fornication
Φιλαργυρία (philargyria) avarice
περηφανία (hyperēphania) hubris – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as self-esteem
Λύπη (lypē) sadness – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as envy, sadness at another's good fortune
ργή (orgē) wrath
Κενοδοξία (kenodoxia) boasting
κηδία (akēdia) acedia – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as dejection
They were translated into the Latin of Western Christianity (largely due to the writings of John Cassian),[7] thus becoming part of the Western tradition's spiritual pietas (or Catholic devotions), as follows:[8]
Gula (gluttony)
Fornicatio (fornication, lust)
Avaritia (avarice/greed)
Superbia (hubris, pride)
Ira (wrath)
Vanagloria (vainglory)
Acedia (sloth)
These "evil thoughts" can be categorized into three types:[8]
lustful appetite (gluttony, fornication, and avarice)
irascibility (wrath)
intellect (vainglory, sorrow, pride, and Discouragement)
In AD 590, a little over two centuries after Evagrius wrote his list, Pope Gregory I revised this list to form the more common Seven Deadly Sins, by folding (sorrow/despair/despondency) into acedia, vainglory into pride, and adding envy.[9] In the order used by Pope Gregory, and repeated by Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) centuries later in his epic poem The Divine Comedy, the seven deadly sins are as follows:
luxuria (lechery/lust)[10][11][12]
gula (gluttony)
avaritia (avarice/greed)
acedia (sloth/discouragement)
ira (wrath)
invidia (envy)
superbia (pride)
(It is interesting to note that Pope Gregory's list corresponds exactly to the traits described in Pirkei Avot as "removing one from the world." See Pirkei Avot 2:16, 3:14, 4:28 and the Vilna Gaon's commentary to Aggadot Berachot 4b.)
The identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has been a fluid process and the idea of what each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time. Additionally, as a result of semantic change:
socordia sloth was substituted for acedia
It is this revised list that Dante uses. The process of semantic change has been aided by the fact that the personality traits are not collectively referred to, in either a cohesive or codified manner, by the Bible itself; other literary and ecclesiastical works were instead consulted, as sources from which definitions might be drawn.[citation needed] Part II of Dante's Divine Comedy, Purgatorio, has almost certainly been the best known source since the Renaissance.[citation needed]
The modern Catholic Catechism lists the sins in Latin as "superbia, avaritia, invidia, ira, luxuria, gula, pigritia seu acedia", with an English translation of "pride, avarice, envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth/acedia".[13] Each of the seven deadly sins now also has an opposite among corresponding seven holy virtues (sometimes also referred to as the contrary virtues). In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven holy virtues are humility, charity, kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence.
Historical and modern definitions
Lust
Main article: Lust
Lust or lechery (carnal "luxuria") is an intense desire. It is usually thought of as excessive sexual wants; however, the word was originally a general term for desire. Therefore lust could involve the intense desire of money, food, fame, or power as well.
In Dante's Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings. In Dante's Inferno, unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are blown about in restless hurricane-like winds symbolic of their own lack of self-control to their lustful passions in earthly life.
Gluttony
Main article: Gluttony
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Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony (Latin, gula) is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of anything to the point of waste.
In Christian religions, it is considered a sin because of the excessive desire for food, and its withholding from the needy.[14]
Because of these scripts, gluttony can be interpreted as selfishness; essentially placing concern with one's own interests above the well-being or interests of others.
Medieval church leaders (e.g., Thomas Aquinas) took a more expansive view of gluttony,[14] arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and excessively costly foods.[15] Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, comprising:
Praepropere – eating too soon
Laute – eating too expensively
Nimis – eating too much
Ardenter – eating too eagerly
Studiose – eating too daintily
Forente – eating wildly

Greed
Main article: Greed
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1909 painting The Worship of Mammon by Evelyn De Morgan.
Greed (Latin, avaritia), also known as avarice or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of material possessions. Thomas Aquinas wrote, "Greed is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." In Dante's Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. Scavenging[citation needed] and hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by Greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one attempts to purchase or sell sacraments, including Holy Orders and, therefore, positions of authority in the Church hierarchy.
As defined outside of Christian writings, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs, especially with respect to material wealth.[16]
Sloth
Main article: Sloth (deadly sin)
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Sloth
Parable of the Wheat and the Tares by Abraham Bloemaert, Walters Art Museum
Sloth (Latin, Socordia) can entail different vices. While sloth is sometimes defined as physical laziness, spiritual laziness is emphasized. Failing to develop spiritually is key to becoming guilty of sloth. In the Christian faith, sloth rejects grace and God.
Sloth has also been defined as a failure to do things that one should do. By this definition, evil exists when good men fail to act.
Over time, the "acedia" in Pope Gregory's order has come to be closer in meaning to sloth. The focus came to be on the consequences of acedia rather than the cause, and so, by the 17th century, the exact deadly sin referred to was believed to be the failure to utilize one's talents and gifts.[citation needed] Even in Dante's time there were signs of this change; in his Purgatorio he had portrayed the penance for acedia as running continuously at top speed.

Wrath
Main article: Wrath
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Wrath (Latin, ira), also known as "rage", may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. Wrath, in its purest form, presents with self-destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provoke feuds that can go on for centuries. Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead. Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, including impatience, revenge, and vigilantism.
Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest, although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy (closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite". In its original form, the sin of anger also encompassed anger pointed internally as well as externally. Thus suicide was deemed as the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of hatred directed inwardly, a final rejection of God's gifts.[citation needed]
Envy
Main article: Envy
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Envy
Arch in the nave with a gothic fresco from 1511 of a man with a dog-head, which symbolizes envy (Dalbyneder Church (da), Denmark)
Like greed and lust, Envy (Latin, invidia) is characterized by an insatiable desire. Envy is similar to jealousy in that they both feel discontent towards someone's traits, status, abilities, or rewards. The difference is the envious also desire the entity and covet it.
Envy can be directly related to the Ten Commandments, specifically, "Neither shall you desire... anything that belongs to your neighbour." Dante defined this as "a desire to deprive other men of theirs". In Dante's Purgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire because they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envy as "sorrow for another's good".[17]
Pride
Main article: Pride
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Building the Tower of Babel was, for Dante, an example of pride. Painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder
In almost every list, pride (Latin, superbia), or hubris (Greek), is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and the source of the others. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to acknowledge the good work of others, and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbour". In Jacob Bidermann's medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus, pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride (his desire to compete with God) was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. In Dante's Divine Comedy, the penitents were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs to induce feelings of humility.
Historical sins
Acedia
Main article: Acedia
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Acedia (Latin, acedia) (from Greek ακηδία) is the neglect to take care of something that one should do. It is translated to apathetic listlessness; depression without joy. It is related to melancholy: acedia describes the behaviour and melancholy suggests the emotion producing it. In early Christian thought, the lack of joy was regarded as a willful refusal to enjoy the goodness of God and the world God created; by contrast, apathy was considered a refusal to help others in time of need.
When Thomas Aquinas described acedia in his interpretation of the list, he described it as an uneasiness of the mind, being a progenitor for lesser sins such as restlessness and instability. Dante refined this definition further, describing acedia as the failure to love God with all one's heart, all one's mind and all one's soul; to him it was the middle sin, the only one characterised by an absence or insufficiency of love. Some scholars[who?] have said that the ultimate form of acedia was despair which leads to suicide.
Vainglory
Main article: Vanity
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Conversion of the Magdalene' or 'Allegory of Modesty and Vanity by Bernardino Luini, c. 1520
Vainglory (Latin, vanagloria) is unjustified boasting. Pope Gregory viewed it as a form of pride, so he folded vainglory into pride for his listing of sins.[citation needed]
The Latin term gloria roughly means boasting, although its English cognate - glory - has come to have an exclusively positive meaning; historically, vain roughly meant futile, but by the 14th century had come to have the strong narcissistic undertones, of irrelevant accuracy, that it retains today.[18] As a result of these semantic changes, vainglory has become a rarely used word in itself, and is now commonly interpreted as referring to vanity (in its modern narcissistic sense).
Catholic Seven Virtues
The Catholic Church also recognizes seven virtues, which correspond inversely to each of the seven deadly sins.
Latin
Luxuria
Castitas
Gula
Temperantia
Avaritia
Caritas
Acedia
Industria
Ira
Patientia
Invidia
Humanitas
Superbia
Humilitas
Associations with demons
In 1589, Peter Binsfeld paired each of the deadly sins with a demon, who tempted people by means of the associated sin. According to Binsfeld's classification of demons, the pairings are as follows:
Lucifer: pride (superbia)
Mammon: greed (avaritia)
Asmodeus: lust (luxuria)
Leviathan: envy (invidia)
Beelzebub: gluttony (gula or gullia)
Amon or Satan: wrath (ira)
Belphegor: sloth (acedia)
This contrasts slightly with an earlier series of pairings found in the fifteenth century English Lollard tract Lanterne of Light, which differs in pairing Beelzebub with Envy, Abadon with Sloth, Belphegor with Gluttony and matching Lucifer with Pride, Satan with Wrath, Asmodeus with Lust and Mammon with Avarice.[19]
In Doctor Faustus, there is a "parade" of the seven deadly sins that is conducted by Mephistopheles, Satan, and Beelzebub suggesting that the demons do not match with each deadly sin, but the demons are in command of the seven deadly sins.
Patterns
According to a 2009 study by a Jesuit scholar, the most common deadly sin confessed by men is lust, and for women, pride.[20] It was unclear whether these differences were due to different rates of commission, or different views on what "counts" or should be confessed.[21]
Cultural references
The seven deadly sins have long been a source of inspiration for writers and artists, from medieval works such as Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, to modern works such as the film Se7en.

 

Seven Deadly Sins Dalam Inggris

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